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Institute of Professional Representatives before the European Patent Office

The Patent Profession in the EPC Contracting States

AL - Albania
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Albanian Patent Office; http://www.dppm.gov.al
Associations Not applicable yet
Basic Requirements 1. “Master of Science” in : 1.1. the field of engineering or pharmaceuticals or natural sciences 1.1.1. qualified in trainings or specialized courses in the field of industrial property; 1.2. in another field and should have no less than five years’ work experience in this field 1.2.1. qualified in trainings or specialized courses in the field of industrial property. 2. Passed the testing for the qualification of patent attorney - Also, every former employee of the Albanian patent office, graduated, who has no less than three years’ work experience in issues of industrial property in the patent office.?
Practice Required Exercised an activity in the field of IP property for not less than 5 years.
Examination - APO organizes a test for the qualification as authorized representative (subject to payment of the respective fee) - The professional licence is to be renewed on a 5 year bases

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AT - Austria
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Austrian Chamber of Patent Attorneys; https://www.oepak.at
Associations - Private practice: Österreichische Patentanwaltskammer Linke Wienzeile 4/1/9 1060 Wien Austria - Industry: RING der Industrie- Patentingenieure Österreichs c/o Andritz AG Statteger Straße 18 8045 Graz Austria - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Austrian or EEA nationality 2. Technical, mathematical or natural scientific Master or Ph.D. degree from an Austrian or EEA university (Equivalent academic degrees from non-EEA universities need to be accredited)
Practice Required - 5 years practice with registered Austrian patent attorney, examination may be taken after 4 years - 7.5 years practice in industry equivalent to patent attorney work for taking examination - For registered civil engineer 2 years practice for taking examination - For technical examiners at the NPO 10 years practice for taking examination - Technical examiner permanently employed at the NPO for 20 years may enter the list without examination
Examination - The examination comprises a written and an oral part - The examination is organised and prepared by the NPO - The examination is held by a joint panel of members from the NPO and the Austrian Chamber of Patent Attorneys - Training is organised by the Austrian Chamber of Patent Attorneys - Passed EQE taken into account in examination

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BE - Belgium
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO; https://economie.fgov.be/en/themes/intellectual-property
Associations - Private practice: Chambre des Conseils de la Propriété Intellectuelle - Industry: UBCEPI/BVORIE - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Scientific, technical or legal university degree or high school degree of more than 3 years
Practice Required - 3 years of activity in the patent profession as assistant to a qualified [Belgian] patent attorney, or as an authorised employee - of which 2 years maximum may be equivalent activity before the EPO, or activity in EEA state
Examination - The examination comprises two written parts and one oral part 1. The written parts comprise: 1.1. drafting of set of patent claims; 1.2. advice to client, opposition, infringement, etc. 2. The oral part relates to national law, EPC, PCT and basics of US and JP law - Released from part 1 of the written examination, if qualified European Patent Attorney - The same rules apply for private practice and industry

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BG
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO www.bpo.bg Temporary or one-off provision of services by a foreign representative without entry in the Register – by representatives or partnerships of agents practicing in another Member State of the European Union, of a State party to the Agreement on the EEA or of the Swiss Confederation.
Associations Not applicable yet
Basic Requirements 1. Bulgarian citizen or a national of another Member State of the European Union, of a State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area or of the Swiss Confederation; 2. Diploma for completed higher education with a Master’s degree in any of the professional fields of higher education: ”Natural Sciences”, “Mathematics and informatics”, “Technical sciences”, “Agrarian sciences and veterinary medicine”, or the professional fields “Medicine”, “Dentistry”, “Pharmacy” or “Law”; 3. has successfully passed an examination to acquire a professional qualification for a representative in the field of patents, utility models and/or in the field of trade marks, designs and geographical indications or has been recognized as such; 4. is entered in the register.
Practice Required Practicing the occupation for at least one year during the last ten years, fulltime, or of an equivalent duration, part-time, where the profession is not regulated in the state in which it is exercised.
Examination The NPO provides a two-part examination with a written and oral part

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CH - Switzerland
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Swiss Patent Office (EIGE) https://www.ige.ch/en.html
Associations 1. Verband der freiberuflichen Europäischen und Schweizer Patentanwälte (VESPA) 2. Private practice: - Association des conseils en brevets suisses et européens de profession libérale (ACBSE); c/o Frei Patentanwaltsbüro, Postfach 1771, CH-8032 Zürich Switzerland www.frei-patent.ch - Verband Schweizerischer Patent- und Markenanwälte (VSP) - Association Suisse des Conseils en Propriété Industrielle (ASCPI) Postfach 638 3000 Bern 7 Switzerland mail@vsp.ch - Verband der Industriepatentanwälte in der Schweiz (VIPS) 3. Industry: - Association des Conseils en Brevets dans l'Industrie Suisse (ACBIS); c/o Institut Straumann AG Peter Merian-Weg 12 CH-4002 Basel Switzerland www.acbis.org - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. For patent attorneys or European patent attorneys counseling or representing in Switzerland 2. Technical or natural scientific degree such as bachelor, master or higher or equivalent (Equivalent academic degrees from non-CH universities need to be accredited)
Practice Required - 3 years of activity in the patent profession as assistant to a qualified registered patent attorney or a similar qualified non-registered person (special requirements) for persons having a master degree or higher, and - 6 years for persons with a bachelor degree; - practical work of at least one year needed with reference to Switzerland
Examination - organised by national chamber of examination - written parts: passed EQE parts A + B, Swiss patent and procedural law - oral part: trademarks, design, copyright, competition and civil law - training organised by Swiss patent office and an organisation of the three patent attorney associations

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CY
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Registrar of Companies and Official Receiver www.mcit.gov.cy/drc or
Associations Presently no association - Unitary profession the website of the Cyprus Bar Association www.cyprusbarassociation.org?
Basic Requirements -
Practice Required -
Examination No examination

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CZ
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Chamber of Patent Attorneys https://www.expats.cz/en/prague/czech/professional-associations/chamberofpatentattorneys
Associations Chamber of Patent Attorneys in Brno https://www.expats.cz/en/prague/czech/professional-associations/chamberofpatentattorneys
Basic Requirements 1. Czech or EEA nationality 2. University education 3. Examination 4. Oath to the President of the Chamber of Patent Attorneys
Practice Required 3 years practice in industrial property for taking Examination
Examination - Two-part examination with written and oral part provided by the NPO - The examination board comprises two members nominated by the Chamber of Patent Attorneys and two members nominated by the NPO

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DE - Germany
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Patent- anwaltskammer www.patentanwalt.de - Patent Attorney may represent on his own before the NPO, the Federal Patent Court (validity) and in appeals (validity) before the Federal Supreme Court
Associations - Patentanwaltskammer (PAK) Tal 29 80331 München Germany www.patentanwalt.de - VPP Uhlandstr. 1 47239 Duisburg Germany www.vpp-patent.de - Bundesverband der Deutschen Patentanwälte e.V. Geschäftsstelle Deichmannhaus am Dom Postfach 10 22 41 50462 Köln Germany www.bundesverbandpate ntanwaelte.de - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Scientific or technical university degree 2. 12 months practical technical experience
Practice Required - 10 years in patent department of industry (reduced to 8 years for qualified European Patent Attorneys) or - 34 months of training including 26 months under supervision of patent attorney or patent agent in patent department and additionally 2 months at the NPO and 6 months at the Federal Patent Court (of the 26 months, two months can be spent at a patent litigation chamber) - in both cases the candidate has to pass a basic legal education comprising a 2 year distance learning course (Fernuniversität Hagen) and a final exam
Examination The examination comprises two written parts and one oral part

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DK - Denmark
Professional Representation No mandatory authorization
Associations - Private practice: Association of Danish Intellectual Property Attorneys (ADIPA) www.adipa.dk - Industry: Dansk Forening for Industriens Patent- og Varemærkespecialister; www.dipinfo.dk - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements -
Practice Required - Private practice: 3 years practice for entering Association as full member, 1 year practice to become an associate member - Industry: To become a member the person has to be employed in a Danish industrial enterprise or institution related there to (industry organizations) and has to deal with IPR (patents, trademarks, etc.) in their normal work
Examination - No examination - Institutions engaged with education: 1) DIFI; www.difi.dk 2) CEIPI Denmark: www.ceipi.dk 3) EPCtutors.dk www.epctutors.dk

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EE - Estonia
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by Chamber of Estonian Patent Attorneys https://pvkoda.ee/ Membership is mandatory
Associations Chamber of Estonian Patent Attorneys Toompuiestee 7 15041 Tallinn, Estonia, info@pvkoda.ee - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Is capable; 2. Citizen of Estonia or EEA with permanent residence in Estonia; 3. a nationally recognized master’s degree or equivalent qualification in Estonia or abroad, education in field of natural or technical sciences; 4. Speaks and writes fluent Estonian; 5. Command of two foreign languages for the professional work, of which at least one is the official working language of the EPO (English, German, French); 6. No criminal conviction for a crime
Practice Required At least four years employment with registered patent attorney or patent attorney firm during the last ten years
Examination - Written examination comprising 1. theoretical knowledge part 2. part of solving of case exercises of industrial property

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ES - Spain
Professional Representation Industrial Property Agent on register maintained by the NPO
Associations - Colegio Oficial de Agentes de la Propriedad Industrial (COAPI) Calle de la Montera, 13 28013 Madrid Spain - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements a) Legal age and full capacity to act b) Citizen of a state of the European Union or legal resident in Spain c) Not having been convicted for an intentional crime, except when being rehabilitated. d) Be in possession or able to obtain the official title of “Grado”, “Licenciado”, “Arquitecto”, “Ingeniero” or other official University degree approved or equivalent to any of the above. Applicants with qualifications obtained abroad must be in possession or in a position to obtain the corresponding certificate of approval to “Grado” of said degree or, where appropriate, the corresponding certificate of equivalence.
Practice Required No practice required for taking examination
Examination - The examination is organised and prepared by the NPO - The examination is held by a panel of members of the NPO - Training course provided by COAPI - Same rules apply for private practice and industry

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FI - Finnland
Professional Representation - Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO; www.prh.fi
Associations - Private practice: Suomen Patenttiasiamiesyhdistys r.y. P.O. Box 595 00101 Helsinki Finland www.spay.fi - Industry: Patentti-Insinöörit r.y.; www.patentti-insinoorit.fi - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements - Patent Attorney: a) Scientific or technical university degree (Master Degree or higher); exceptions possible b) Permanent residence in the EEA - Finnish Lawyer: law degree from University
Practice Required - Practise required (for enrolling for examination) a) The candidate may enrol after obtaining at least one year experience in the field. b) Patent law module requires a Master's degree in the field of technology or other appropriate higher education. Trademark or design rights module requires a Master's degree in Law or other applicable degree. c) Intellectual Ombudsman Board may grant exemption from the required education, provided a person has handled intellectual property issues for a minimum of five years and passed an examination which the Board considers sufficient for the applicant to demonstrate the required skills.
Examination - The Intellectual Ombudsman Board organizes IP attorney examination, which for consisting of: 1) a common part with the IP legal system part and intellectual property attorney ethical conduct part; 2) three IP modules, which includes the patent law, trademark law and design law modules. Modules are optional, however at least one module has to be passed for receiving respective qualification. Patent module has four parts.

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FR - France
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO; with notice of specialization (engineer, lawyer) and field (patents, trademarks, designs)
Associations - Private practice: - Compagnie Nationale des Conseils en Propriété Industrielle (CNCPI) 92 rue d'Amsterdam 75009 Paris France www.cncpi.fr - Association des Conseils en Propriété Industrielle (ACPI) 92 rue d'Amsterdam 75009 Paris France - Industry: - Association de Spécialistes en Propriété Industrielle (ASPI) 20 rue Vignon 75009 Paris France - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Engineer diploma or at least University degree (Master) 2. CEIPI diploma (or equivalent) is required
Practice Required 3 years professional practice should be done under the control of a registered patent attorney
Examination - Two separate examinations; patents and trademarks/ designs - The patent examination comprises two written parts and one oral part - Having passed the EQE it is necessary only to take the 2nd written part and the oral part - Examination is organised by the NPO - The examination is drafted and examined by a jury chaired by a magistrate and comprising a lawyer, a university professor and other persons qualified in industrial property - ASPI and CNCPI organise training sessions - A person having the CEIPI diploma, 8 years of professional practice and having passed an oral control on deontology could be registered without passing the examination

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GB - United Kingdom
Professional Representation Patent Attorney Register defined in the CDPA Act 1988 is administered by the regulatory board IPReg https://ipreg.org.uk/
Associations - The Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys (CIPA) 2nd Floor Halton House 20 – 23 Holborn London, EC1N 2JD https://www.cipa.org.uk/ - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements Academic requirements defined by the PRB of the IPReg in Schedule 2 of the Rules for the Examination and Admission of Individuals to the Register, namely a. a degree conferred by a University or Higher Education Institution in the United Kingdom (UK), or by the Open University Validation Service, or a licence awarded by the University College of Buckingham before that College was granted University status; b. a degree conferred by the Council for National Academic Awards before 1992; c. a pass in the Legal Practice Course (England and Wales) or the Diploma in Professional Legal Practice (Scotland) or the Postgraduate Diploma in Professional Legal Education or Studies (Northern Ireland) or the Bar Final Examination; or d. any other qualification, whether obtained in the UK or elsewhere, which the Examination Agency concerned will accept as providing a suitable basis for entry into the patent or trade mark professions;
Practice Required • No previous practice is required for taking the examination • For entry onto the national register there is a requirement to have completed either at least two years full time practice under the supervision of a Patent Attorney, barrister or solicitor, or have completed four years full time practice in the field of intellectual property including patent agency work in the UK
Examination Foundation stage – a candidate must successfully complete the IPReg-accredited Foundation Certificate course at Bournemouth University, Brunel University or Queen Mary University London, or the IPReg-accredited Foundation Certificate examinations provided by the Patent Examination Board (PEB - PEB Home page - CIPA https://www.cipa.org.uk/patent-examination-board/). Final stage – a candidate must successfully complete Final Diploma comprising four examination provided by the PEB. There are four examinations: FD1 – Advanced IP Law and Practice, FD2 – Drafting of Specifications, FD3 – Amendment of Specifications and FD4 – Infringement and Validity. IPReg recognises the equivalence of passing EQE papers A and B with FD2 and FD3 respectively. This does not extend to a compensable fail in relation to a single paper. If a candidate has a compensable fail in EQE papers A or B, they need to re-sit and successfully pass the relevant single paper, or pass the EQE as a whole if they have not passed FD2 and FD3. PEB has a governance board (GB), an examination committee (EC) and a head of qualifications who manages operations. The GB comprises two patent attorney members and three lay members who are educational specialists. Chief, Principal and Marking Examiners with expertise in the examined subjects are appointed by the PEB. The EC comprises the Chief and Principal Examiners. CIPA has an active student body – Informals – which assists candidates in preparing for the national and EQE examinations.

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GR - Greece
Professional Representation Only lawyers may practice
Associations - Presently no association - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements -
Practice Required -
Examination No examination

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HR - Croatia
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations Hrvatska komora patentnih zastupnika i zastupnika za žigove [Croatian Chamber of Patent and Trademark Attorneys] Ulica grada Vukovara 78 10000 Zagreb Croatia
Basic Requirements 1. HR resident and 2. Minimum university degree (Master) from natural or technical science, or Attorney-at- Law + examination passed before the NPO or 3. Equivalent academic degree + examination passed before the NPO + 5 year of IP practice
Practice Required Only if academic degree is different form technical or natural science; with minimum duration of 5 year practice in IP field; except in case of already chartered Attorney-at – Law
Examination - The examination comprises a written and an oral part - The examination is organised and prepared by the NPO

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HU - Hungary
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Hungarian Chamber of Patent Attorneys
Associations - Hungarian Chamber of Patent Attorneys Kálmán Imre u. 14, 1054 Budapest, Hungary www.szabadalmikamara. Hu - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Hungarian or EEA nationality or an immigrant or a settled person 2. Having a clean record 3. University degree (means at least 5 years studies) or master degree in engineering, informatics, or in other health or natural sciences (specifically medical, veterinarian, biologist, chemist, pharmacist, mathematician, physicist) 4. Patent attorney examination
Practice Required - At least 3 years practice as a patent attorney candidate - Graduation from a two years training course organised by the NPO
Examination - National examination comprises: 1. two written parts: one of the topics should be in patents, the other in trademarks; and 2. one oral part: topic selected from national IP law, IP related parts of Civil law and civil procedural law, IP related parts of criminal law; EPC, PCT, International and Community trademark law, basics of national copyright and unfair competition law, TRIPS and other international treaties and patent laws of foreign countries.

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IE - Irland
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations - Association of Patent & Trade Mark Agents c/o F.R. Kelly & Co 27 Clyde Road Dublin 4 Ireland www.aptma.ie - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. University degree in science or engineering, exceptions possible 2. Examination required for entry on the national register
Practice Required No time limit imposed for taking examination
Examination - The examination comprises two parts, CIPA (GB) and Irish legal part - Ministerial waiver required for compensating CIPA parts with papers of the EQE

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IS - Iceland
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Icelandic Patent Office
Associations - Private Practice: Association of Patent and Trademark Attorneys (FUVE) www.fuve.is - Private Practice and industry: Association of Icelandic Patent Professionals (FEIS) www.feis.is
Basic Requirements -
Practice Required - Requirements as defined by the two patent attorney associations (FEIS and FUVE respectively): Private practice: - 5 years IPR practice Industry: - Persons employed by industry or institutions having IPR as a main activity in their work
Examination - No examination - Having passed the EQE provides automatic membership to FEIS

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IT - Italy
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Ordine dei Consulenti in Proprietà Industriale
Associations - Private practice: Collegio Italiano dei Consulenti in Proprietà Industriale Via Nino Bixio 7 20129 Milan Italy Email: collegio@ficpi.it - Private practice and industry: Ordine dei Consulenti in Proprietà Industriale Via G. Donizetti 1/A 20122 Milan Italy www.ordine-brevetti.it - Industry: A.I.C.I.P.I., Associazione Italiana dei Consulenti ed Esperti in Proprietà Industriale di Enti o Imprese; www.aicipi.it - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. a degree or an equivalent university degree in any foreign country; 2. a diploma or a title issued by a member country of the European Union including the attestation that the candidate has successfully completed a cycle of post-secondary studies with a minimum duration of three years or a part-time equivalent, in a university or in a higher education institution or another institution of the same level of education, provided that the course of study has a technical-professional address relevant to the activity of consultant in industrial property in the field of patents of invention and models or in the field of trademarks and designs and models, depending upon whether the examination is for registration in the patent section or in the A trademark section respectively. 3. Any person who has passed the European Qualifying Examination for representation before the European Patent Office is admitted to the examination for registration in the patent section.
Practice Required - 18 months training with company, offices or services specialised in industrial property under the supervision of a registered patent attorney with at least 5 years of experience. Enrollment with the Register of Trainees is compulsory for access to the qualifying examination - Examination not required for Italian citizens with employment for 5 years as an EPO examiner - Examination not required for chief examiners at the NPO with at least 5 years of employment
Examination 1. The examination comprises two written parts: 1.1. patent drafting and 1.2. patent law and 2. one oral part on 2.1. public and private law and civil procedure 2.2. patent law 2.3. EU and international law in industrial property, 2.4. comparative law in industrial property 2.5. English, French or German as foreign language and 2.6. technical knowledge in chemistry, electricity or mechanics - Having passed the EQE allows for taking examination without practice

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LI - Liechtenstein
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the government agency FMA (Finanzmarktauf- sicht)
Associations - Liechtensteinischer Patentanwaltsverband (LIPAV) Kappelestrasse 15 9492 Eschen Liechtenstein - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. National of the EEA or recognized by international treaty 2. National examination 3. Educational background in engineering or natural sciences
Practice Required Practice requirements given by EQE
Examination - National examination; admittance to oral examination only upon success in preceding written examination (8 hours: patent, trademark, design, copyright and competition law) - EQE prerequisite for taking national examination

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LT
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations - Association of Patent Attorneys in Lithuania Sv. Ignoto g. 6 01107 Vilnius Lithuania nemlietuva@hotmail.com o.klimaitiene@aaalaw.eu - No compulsory membership for practitioners (patentinis patikėtinis) - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Lithuanian nationality or EU nationality 2. University degree in law and/or engineering, natural sciences, mathematics 3. Passing examination organised by the national patent office
Practice Required 5 years of experience in intellectual property (patent attorney firm, NPO, industry IP department, law firm)
Examination Examination comprises 3 parts: 1. theoretical part on national and international IP laws 2. theoretical part on Civil Code and Civil Proceeding Code of the Republic of Lithuania 3. practical part on patent claim drafting, responding to communications, oppositions, etc.

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LU
Professional Representation IP attorneys on Register maintained by “Ministère de l’Economie”
Associations - Fédération des Conseils en Propriété Industrielle au Luxembourg c/o Office Freylinger 234 rte d’Arlon 8010 Strassen Luxembourg Tel.: +352 313830-1
Basic Requirements 1. University degree (law, scientific or technical) 2. Three years training with patent attorney registered in LU or other EU national state; and 3. National examination
Practice Required 1. University degree (law, scientific or technical) 2. Three years training with patent attorney registered in LU or other EU national state; and 3. National examination
Examination National examination on LU patent law and Benelux trademark and designs law

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LV
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO; www.lrpv.lv
Associations - Association of Latvian patent attorneys Latvijas Patentpilnvaroto Asociācija (LPPA) Ausekla 2-2 1010 Riga Latvia www.lppa.lv Tel: +371-67820107 Email: info@lppa.lv
Basic Requirements 1. citizen of Latvia or another EU Member State; 2. is fluent in Latvian and has knowledge of at least two foreign languages that is sufficient for professional co-operation with Latvian and foreign persons and institutions; 3. academic or second-level higher vocational education (diplomas issued by foreign institutions of higher education in the respective specialities must be recognised in Latvia). The education shall be in the field of engineering or natural sciences.* * the law does not state a percentage of technical subjects included in the programme
Practice Required - at least 4 year work experience in the field of protection of industrial property in which respective work in international, regional or national industrial property institutions - Work in the field of protection of industrial property must be systematic, and it shall not include long-term leaves and activity breaks
Examination - Examination has one written part and one oral part, choice between all or one of the fields: patents, trademarks, industrial designs - Latvian IP legislation, International conventions and treaties, practical tasks

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MC
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO http://service-public- entreprises.gouv.mc/ Propriete- intellectuelle/Principa ux-mandataires/Liste- des-principaux- mandataires/Liste- des-principaux- mandataires-aupres- de-la-Propriete- Intellectuelle (MC and selected FR patent attorneys having their place of business close MC)
Associations Unitary profession
Basic Requirements - No requirements for Monegasque citizens - Requirements for Non- Monegasque citizens in the discretion of the Ministry of Economic Expansion (minimum requirement de facto French Patent Attorney Exam or French Trademark Attorney Exam or EQE)
Practice Required MC is not a member of the EEA, therefore no free movement of professionals. Ministry of Economic Expansion limits numbers of authorisations granted to foreign Patent Attorneys to the actual demand in MC.
Examination No examination

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MK
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the State Industrial Property Office
Associations Zdruzenie na zastapnici za intelektualna sopstvenost na Republika Makedonija (Associations of Intellectual Property Representatives of Republic of Macedonia – Skopje St. “Orce Nikolov” b.b. 1000 Skopje Macedonia
Basic Requirements 1. is a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia; 1.1. has registered to perform representation in the field of industrial property; 1.2. has graduated at Law School, one of the technical faculties and Faculty of Pharmacy; 1.3. has passed the specialised exam in accordance with the provision of this Law; and 1.4. has knowledge of at least one of the official languages of the organisations in this area inhere Republic of Macedonia is a member state; 1.5. a lawyer registered in the Bar Association of the Republic of Macedonia who fulfils the conditions of item 1 and lawyers’ association or lawyers’ office registered in the Bar Association of the Republic of Macedonia that has employed an individual who fulfils the conditions of item 1 3.. Legal person: - that has a registered office in the Republic of Macedonia; - that is registered for representation in the area of industrial property protection; - has employed at least one individual who fulfils the conditions of item 1.
Practice Required No practice requirements
Examination The examination comprises a written and an oral part - The examination is organised and prepared by the State Industrial Property Office (SIPO) - The examination is held by a Commission of members from the SIPO and scientific and expert community - Training is organised by the SIPO and by Association of Intellectual Property Representatives

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MT
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Comptroller of Industrial Property of Malta
Associations None
Basic Requirements Nothing laid down by law
Practice Required Nothing laid down by law
Examination No examination

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NL
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations - Orde van Octrooigemachtigden Prinses Beatrixlaan 2 2595 AL Den Haag The Netherlands www.octrooigemachtigde. nl - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. University degree in science, technology, engineering or agriculture for taking examination 2. Anybody having passed the national examination and having three years practice may enter the national register
Practice Required - 3 years practice at office of NL patent attorney - Exemption for EEA patent attorneys or qualified European Patent Attorneys (provided they pass an aptitude test)
Examination - The examination is in writing and comprises 6 modules: 1) general law (3.5 hours) 2) patent law (3hours) 3) other IP-law, European law, competition law (3 hours) 4) writing an advice regarding a patent- related problem (8 hours) 5) writing of a patent application and 6) defending the same (4 hours each) - The examination is examined by an examination committee appointed by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and comprising representatives from the NPO, the patent profession and the legal profession - Training is provided in the form of a two years course - Examination modules form a part of the course, but are also open to persons not following the course - Modules 5 and 6 may be compensated by Paper A and B of the EQE respectively

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NO
Professional Representation No register of Patent Attorneys
Associations - Private Practice: Foreningen for norske IP rådgivere (FONIP) '- Industry: Norsk Forening for Industriens Patentingeniører (NIP) – a FEMIPI associated union
Basic Requirements -
Practice Required - persons having their main occupation within private sector of industrial property rights and either: - fulfilling the requirements for membership in TEKNA or having a law degree, or - fulfilling the requirements for representing clients before the EPO and/ or EUIPO
Examination No examination

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PL
Professional Representation - IP Attorney on register administrated by NPO - Unitary profession for patent and trademark attorneys
Associations - Polska Izba Rzeczników Patentowych (PIRP) (Polish Chamber of Patent Attorneys) ul. Madalińskiego 20/ 2 02-513 Warszawa Poland www.rzecznikpatentowy.org.pl - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. University degree (required to have Master degree) from faculty useful for practicing the profession (e.g. technical, legal) 2. Citizenship of EU or EFTA 3. Knowledge of Polish language
Practice Required - 3 years training organized by PIRP - 3 years practice under supervision of experienced patent attorney
Examination - Qualifying examination organized by PIRP under supervision of NPO, comprising: - 2 written parts: a) Preparing specification of patent application; b) Solving legal issue or preparing legal documents - Oral part (10 questions); Oath before the NPO

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PT
Professional Representation IP Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations - Associação Portuguesa dos Mandatários Europeus de Patentes (AMEP) Rua Vitor Córdon,14 1249-103 Lisboa Portugal - Associação dos Consultores em Propriedade Intelectual (ACPI) Rua do Salitre, 195 1269–063 Lisboa Portugal www.acpi.org.pt - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. PT or EEA citizens having passed the national examination 2. University degree or high school degree of, at least, 3 years 3. Office located in PT or in the territory of a EEA Member State
Practice Required No practice required for taking examination
Examination - The examination comprises one written part and one oral part - The examination is organised, drafted and examined by the NPO

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RO
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by NPO and also member of the Romanian Chamber of IP Attorneys
Associations Camera Nationala a Consilierilor in Proprietate Industriala din Romania (Romanian Chamber of IP Attorneys) Str.Matei Voievod, nr.103-113, bloc O3, sc.C, parter, ap.92 sector 2 - Bucharest Romania www.patent-chamber.ro - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. RO, EU or EEA nationality 2. Business place in RO, EU or EEA 3. Technical, scientific or law university degree
Practice Required 3 years experience in the basic profession - 3 years training in the IP field - Patent examiner permanently employed at NPO for at least
Examination - Examination organised by the NPO - Examination comprises 3 written parts: 1. One theoretical part on national patent law, PCT, EPC and other international patent treaties, and 2. Two practical parts comprising: 2.1. Drafting a specification and claims including filing a patent application 2.2. Replying to an official action or drafting an opposition paper or appeal or replying to an opposition paper

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RS
Professional Representation Attorney at Law or Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations No associations
Basic Requirements 1. Natural person, RS resident; 2. Command of one language of international communication 3. Faculty of Law graduates 4. examination before NPO 5. University degree in Technologies, or Science and Mathematics or Pharmacy + examination before NPO 6. University degree in Technologies, or Science and Mathematics or Pharmacy + at least five years of working experience with the NPO 7. Legal persons having seat in RS and employing at least one Law faculty graduate and one Technology or Sciences and Mathematics or Pharmacy graduate who fulfill conditions to represent clients on a professional basis i.e. who passed Patent Attorney examination
Practice Required 2 years practice in IP, except for Attorneys at Law
Examination - The examination comprises 2 parts: written and oral part - The examination is organized and prepared by the NPO

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SE
Professional Representation No mandatory authorization. Voluntary authorization gives privileged status under the Swedish act on authorisation of patent attorneys (SFS 2010:1052), and Chapter 36, Section 5 of the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure. A register of authorised patent attorneys is kept by Patentombudsnämnden: http://www.patentombudsn amnden.se
Associations - Private practice: Svenska Patentombudsföreningen c/o Trona Patentrådgivning AB, Box 102, 129 22 Hägersten Sweden http://www.spof.se - Industry: Svenska Industrins IP Förening (for a postal address, please contact the secretary: veronica.liedberg@sg.se) http://www.sipf.se - Non-unitary profession
Basic Requirements Person living in Sweden with a technical or legal degree from a university involving at least 4 years studies
Practice Required 4 years practice in Sweden relating to patent matters
Examination - National examination planned to be held yearly. - Technical and legal matters will be tested. Passing EQE can replace the technical parts, but legal matters relating to Swedish national law and code of conduct need to be tested.

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SI
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO; http://www.uil-sipo.si
Associations - Association of Slovenian Patent Attorneys (ASPA) c/o ITEM d.o.o. Resljeva cesta 16 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. university diploma in the technical field or natural science 2. passed the examination
Practice Required No practice required
Examination - National examination for patent attorneys is organized by the NPO and consists of a written part which usually takes appr. 8 hours and an oral part which takes appr. 3 hours - The examination covers Slovenian national legislation and international treaties valid in Slovenia concerning patents, trademarks, industrial designs and geographical indications - The EQE has no formal influence on this examination

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Sk
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the Chamber of Patent Attorneys
Associations - Slovak Chamber of Patent Attorneys Ružová dolina 6 821 08 Bratislava Slovakia www.patentattorneys.sk - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Tertiary education 2. Professional examination 3. Oath to President
Practice Required 3 years practice by patent attorneys or 4-years practice in industrial property department of companies required for taking examination
Examination Professional examination given by the NPO comprises written and oral parts

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SM
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO; www.usbm.sm
Associations - No association - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Enrolment on register of Italian or European patent Attorneys 2. SM citizen or IT/EU citizen having elected business place in SM
Practice Required No practice required
Examination No examination

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TR
Professional Representation Patent Attorney on register maintained by the NPO
Associations - Patent ve Marka Vekilleri Derneği (PEM) www.pem.org.tr (Association, not national) - Unitary profession
Basic Requirements 1. Turkish citizenship with place of residence in Turkey 2. University degree of 4 years
Practice Required No practice required for taking examination
Examination The examination comprises a single written part comprising questions related to national patent law and regulations, international treaties, agreements. Also there are questions related to general knowledge in commercial code, economics, mathematics, law in general, political history, and Turkish language.

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